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ЕНЕРГЕТИКА УКРАЇНИ ТА СВІТУ В УМОВАХ ПАНДЕМІЇ: НАСЛІДКИ ТА ЗАХОДИ БОРОТЬБИ
Т. І. Салашенко

Назад

DOI: 10.32702/2306-6806.2020.5.137

УДК: 330.341.1:665.71

Т. І. Салашенко

ЕНЕРГЕТИКА УКРАЇНИ ТА СВІТУ В УМОВАХ ПАНДЕМІЇ: НАСЛІДКИ ТА ЗАХОДИ БОРОТЬБИ

Анотація

Статтю присвячено економічним проблемам енергетики України та світу, які спровоковані спалахом пандемії COVID-19. Серед проблем світового рівня виділяються: надлишкова профіцитність енергетичних ринків, зниження енергетичних цін нижче маржинальних витрат, скорочення інвестицій і стимулів для екологізації, зниження захищеності споживачів. У світі вже визначено основні напрями протидії енергетичної кризи, проте відсутня їх практична реалізація. Поточні методи боротьби спрямовуються переважно на забезпечення надійності роботи критично важливих об'єктів енергетики.
Карантинні заходи в Україні стали акселератором проблем енергетичного комплексу, серед яких виділено: розбалансування енергосистеми, затоварення паливно-енергетичними ресурсами; висока волатильність цін на енергію та енергоносії, зростання кредиторської заборгованості по енергетичному ланцюгу. Прийнятті методи боротьби з енергетичною кризою в пандемічний період в Україні недостатні для забезпечення її надійного функціонування і сталого саморозвитку.
У статті запропоновано комплекс заходів щодо подолання енергетичної кризи в Україні, які включають: антикризові, що і спрямовуються на забезпечення операційної енергетичної безпеки і недопущення блекаутів в енергосистемі в умовах надзвичайного стану (пандемії); тактичні, які впроваджуються в пост-пандемічний період і забезпечують відновлення здоров'я енергетичних ринків; стратегічні, які передбачають забезпечення стратегічної енергетичної безпеки і екологоорієнтованого саморозвиток енергетичних ринків.

Ключові слова: енергетика; енергетична криза; енергетичний баланс; пандемія; кон'юнктура ринку.

Література

1. Oil Market Report — April 2020. International Energy Agency. 2020. URL: https://www.iea.org/reports/oil-market-report-april-2020
2. Total Load Forecast — Month Ahead. ENTSO-E Transparency Platform. 2020. URL: https://transparency.entsoe.eu/load-domain/r2/monthLoad/show?name=&defaultValue=false&viewType=TABLE&areaType=CTY&atch=false&dateTime.dateTime=01.04.2019+00:00|UTC|MONTH&biddingZone.values=CTY|10YES-REE------0!CTY|10YES-REE------0
3. Tsafos N. How COVID-19 Will Reshape Global Gas. Center for Strategic and International Studies. 2020. URL: https://www.csis.org/analysis/how-covid-19-will-reshape-global-gas
4. European natural gas storage inventories are at record-high levels at the end of winter. U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2020. URL: https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=43235
5. Drinkwater M. Testing times for the European gas sector. Petroleum Economist. 2020. URL: https://www.petroleum-economist.com/articles/markets/outlook/2020/testing-times-for-the-european-gas-sector
6. Manuell R. Europe on course for sharp reduction in power demand. Independent Commodity Energy Services. 2020. URL: https://www.icis.com/explore/resources/news/2020/03/20/10484486/europe-on-course-for-sharp-reduction-in-power-demand
7. Sutcliffe M. COVID-19: Lower fuel prices offer scant consolation as European economy heads into lockdown. FleetEurope. 2020. URL: https://www.fleeteurope.com/en/new-energies/europe/features/covid-19-lower-fuel-prices-offer-scant-consolation-european-economy-heads-lockdown?t%5B0%5D=Coronavirus&t%5B1%5D=COVID-19&t%5B2%5D=fuel%20prices&curl=1
8. World Economic Outlook. April 2020: The Great Lockdown. International Monetary Fund. 2020. URL: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2020/04/14/weo-april-2020
9. Crude Oil Brent US Dollars per Barrel. Country Economy. 2009. URL: https://countryeconomy.com/raw-materials/brent?dr=2008-12
10. Lempriere M. Surging renewables give 'glimpse of the future' as prices tumble over sunny. Current News. 2020. URL: https://www.current-news.co.uk/news/surging-renewables-give-glimpse-of-the-future-as-prices-tumble-over-sunny-weekend
11. Chini M. Coronavirus: Electricity prices drop below zero. The Brussels Times. 2020. URL: https://www.brusselstimes.com/all-news/business/106322/coronavirus-electricity-prices-drop-below-zero/
12. Market Data. NordPool Group. 2020. URL: https://www.nordpoolgroup.com/Market-data1/Dayahead/Area-Prices/ALL1/Hourly/?view=table
13. Cocklin J. Global LNG Production Shut-Ins Seen Imminent as Prices Continue Falling. Natural Gas Intelligence. 2020. URL: https://www.naturalgasintel.com/articles/121705-global-lng-production-shut-ins-seen-imminent-as-prices-continue-falling
14. Eckert V., Chestney N. Coronavirus crisis shakes Europe's power. gas prices. Reuters. 2020. URL: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-europe-power/coronavirus-crisis-shakes-europes-power-gas-prices-idUSKBN21B2J9
15. Covid-19: Biggest drop in CO2 emissions since WWII but little impact on climate change. RFI. 2020. URL: http://www.rfi.fr/en/international/20200403-covid-19-biggest-drop-in-co2-emissions-since-wwii-but-little-impact-on-climate-change
16. Gray M. COVID and coal power: outlook and opportunities. Carbon Tracker. 2020. URL: https://carbontracker.org/covid-and-coal-power-outlook-and-opportunities/
17. Schulz F. German CO2 emissions dive amid coronavirus slump Euractiv. 2020. URL: https://www.euractiv.com/section/emissions-trading-scheme/news/german-co2-emissions-dive-amid-coronavirus-slump/
18. Hieminga G., Spakman T. EU carbon border tax: Unnecessary for now but still a good idea. THINK — Economic and Financial Analysis. 2020. URL: https://think.ing.com/articles/eu-carbon-border-tax-unnecessary-for-now-but-still-a-good-idea/
19. Parnell J. European Countries Postpone Renewable Auctions. Project Deadlines for Coronavirus. GTM. 2020. URL: https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/european-governments-cut-renewable-developers-coronavirus-slack
20. Many upstream projects facing postponement or overhauls. consultancy claims. Wood Mackenzie. 2020. URL: https://www.offshore-mag.com/field-development/article/14173309/many-upstream-projects-facing-postponement-or-overhauls-consultancy-claims
21. Upcoming oil and gas pipeline projects delayed by Covid-19. GlobalData Energy. 2020. URL: https://www.offshore-technology.com/comment/oil-and-gas-pipeline-projects-delay/
22. COVID-19 impact on the power sector. Eurelectric. 2020. URL: https://cdn.eurelectric.org/news/covid-19/
23. Hartman D. 7 ways to refine the energy sector's COVID-19 response. Utility Dive. 2020. URL: https://www.utilitydive.com/news/7-ways-to-refine-the-energy-sectors-covid-19-response/576020

T. Salashenko

ENERGY SECTOR OF UKRAINE AND WORLD IN A PANDEMIC CONDITIONS: CONSEQUENCES AND MEASURES OF FIGHTING

Summary

The article is devoted to economic problems in energy sectors of Ukraine and the world, which are provoked by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic.
In the pre-pandemic period world energy markets were in surplus and the main priorities of their development were decarbonisation and integration. But they were unprepared to counter the unexpected negative pandemic effects. Among the world-level energy problems stand out: excessive surplus of energy markets, lowering energy prices below marginal costs, falling of investments and decreasing of greening incentives, reduction of consumer protection. The world society has already identified the main directions of countering the energy crisis, but there are no their practical implementation measures. Current fighting methods are aimed primarily at ensuring the reliability of critical energy utilities.
In the pre-pandemic period, the energy sector of Ukraine was under the pressure of European reforms, but the system pathologies of them did not allow building effective competitive energy markets.
Quarantine measures in Ukraine have become an accelerator of energy problems, among which are highlighted: imbalance of the energy system, overstocking by fuel and energy resources; high volatility of energy prices, growth of accounts debts through the all energy chain. The adoption methods of dealing with the energy crisis in the pandemic period are insufficient to ensure its reliable functioning and sustainable self-development.
Exit from the energy crisis requires the adoption and implementation of urgent measures from the Ukrainian authorities to protect national interests and the survival of its national economy. The article proposes a set of measures to overcome the crisis in the power sector of Ukraine, which include: anti-crisis measures, which are aimed at ensuring operational energy security and preventing blackouts in the energy system in a state of emergency (pandemic), tactical measures that are introduced in the post-pandemic period and provide health recovery of energy markets; strategic measures that are providing for ensuring strategic energy security and environmentally-friendly self-development of energy markets.

Keywords: energy; energy crisis; energy balance; pandemic; market conditions.

References

1. International Energy Agency (2020), "Oil Market Report — April 2020", available at: https://www.iea.org/reports/oil-market-report-april-2020 (Accessed 20 April 2020).
2. ENTSO-E Transparency Platform (2020), "Total Load Forecast — Month Ahead", available at: https://transparency.entsoe.eu/load-domain/r2/monthLoad/show?name=&defaultValue=false&viewType=TABLE&areaType=CTY&atch=false&dateTime.dateTime=01.04.2019+00:00|UTC|MONTH&biddingZone.values=CTY|10YES-REE------0!CTY|10YES-REE------0 (Accessed 20 April 2020).
3. Tsafos, N. (2020), "How COVID-19 Will Reshape Global Gas". Center for Strategic and International Studies, [Online], available at: https://www.csis.org/analysis/how-covid-19-will-reshape-global-gas (Accessed 20 April 2020).
4. U.S. Energy Information Administration (2020), "European natural gas storage inventories are at record-high levels at the end of winter", available at: https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=43235 (Accessed 20 April 2020).
5. Drinkwater, M. (2020), "Testing times for the European gas sector", Petroleum Economist, [Online], available at: https://www.petroleum-economist.com/articles/markets/outlook/2020/testing-times-for-the-european-gas-sector (Accessed 20 April 2020).
6. Manuell, R. (2020), "Europe on course for sharp reduction in power demand", Independent Commodity Energy Services, [Online], available at: https://www.icis.com/explore/resources/news/2020/03/20/10484486/europe-on-course-for-sharp-reduction-in-power-demand (Accessed 20 April 2020).
7. Sutcliffe, M. (2020), "COVID-19: Lower fuel prices offer scant consolation as European economy heads into lockdown", FleetEurope, [Online], available at: https://www.fleeteurope.com/en/new-energies/europe/features/covid-19-lower-fuel-prices-offer-scant-consolation-european-economy-heads-lockdown?t%5B0%5D=Coronavirus&t%5B1%5D=COVID-19&t%5B2%5D=fuel%20prices&curl=1 (Accessed 20 April 2020).
8. International Monetary Fund (2020), "World Economic Outlook, April 2020: The Great Lockdown", available at: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2020/04/14/weo-april-2020 (Accessed 20 April 2020).
9. Country Economy (2009), "Crude Oil Brent US Dollars per Barrel", available at: https://countryeconomy.com/raw-materials/brent?dr=2008-12 (Accessed 20 April 2020).
10. Lempriere, M. (2020), "Surging renewables give 'glimpse of the future' as prices tumble over sunny", Current News, [Online], available at: https://www.current-news.co.uk/news/surging-renewables-give-glimpse-of-the-future-as-prices-tumble-over-sunny-weekend (Accessed 20 April 2020).
11. Chini, M. (2020), "Coronavirus: Electricity prices drop below zero", The Brussels Times, [Online], available at: https://www.brusselstimes.com/all-news/business/106322/coronavirus-electricity-prices-drop-below-zero/ .
12. NordPool Group (2020), "Market Data", available at: https://www.nordpoolgroup.com/Market-data1/Dayahead/Area-Prices/ALL1/Hourly/?view=table (Accessed 20 April 2020).
13. Cocklin, J. (2020), "Global LNG Production Shut-Ins Seen Imminent as Prices Continue Falling", Natural Gas Intelligence, [Online], available at: https://www.naturalgasintel.com/articles/121705-global-lng-production-shut-ins-seen-imminent-as-prices-continue-falling (Accessed 20 April 2020).
14. Eckert, V. and Chestney, N. (2020), "Coronavirus crisis shakes Europe's power, gas prices", Reuters, [Online], available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-europe-power/coronavirus-crisis-shakes-europes-power-gas-prices-idUSKBN21B2J9 (Accessed 20 April 2020).
15. RFI (2020), "Covid-19: Biggest drop in CO2 emissions since WWII but little impact on climate change", available at: http://www.rfi.fr/en/international/20200403-covid-19-biggest-drop-in-co2-emissions-since-wwii-but-little-impact-on-climate-change (Accessed 20 April 2020).
16. Gray, M. (2020), "COVID and coal power: outlook and opportunities", Carbon Tracker, [Online], available at: https://carbontracker.org/covid-and-coal-power-outlook-and-opportunities/ (Accessed 20 April 2020).
17. Schulz, F. (2020), "German CO2 emissions dive amid coronavirus slump— Euractiv, [Online], available at: https://www.euractiv.com/section/emissions-trading-scheme/news/german-co2-emissions-dive-amid-coronavirus-slump/ (Accessed 20 April 2020).
18. Hieminga, G. and Spakman, T. (2020), "EU carbon border tax: Unnecessary for now but still a good idea", Think — Economic and Financial Analysis, [Online], available at: https://think.ing.com/articles/eu-carbon-border-tax-unnecessary-for-now-but-still-a-good-idea/ (Accessed 20 April 2020).
19. Parnell, J. (2020), "European Countries Postpone Renewable Auctions, Project Deadlines for Coronavirus", GTM, [Online], available at: https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/european-governments-cut-renewable-developers-coronavirus-slack (Accessed 20 April 2020).
20. Wood Mackenzie (2020), "Many upstream projects facing postponement or overhauls, consultancy claims", available at: https://www.offshore-mag.com/field-development/article/14173309/many-upstream-projects-facing-postponement-or-overhauls-consultancy-claims (Accessed 20 April 2020).
21. GlobalData Energy (2020), "Upcoming oil and gas pipeline projects delayed by Covid-19", available at: https://www.offshore-technology.com/comment/oil-and-gas-pipeline-projects-delay/ (Accessed 20 April 2020).
22. Eurelectric (2020), "COVID-19 impact on the power sector", available at: https://cdn.eurelectric.org/news/covid-19/ (Accessed 20 April 2020).
23. Hartman, D. (2020), "7 ways to refine the energy sector's COVID-19 response", Utility Dive, [Online], available at: https://www.utilitydive.com/news/7-ways-to-refine-the-energy-sectors-covid-19-response/576020/ (Accessed 20 April 2020).

№ 5 2020, стор. 137 - 142

Дата публікації: 2020-05-28

Кількість переглядів: 93

Відомості про авторів

Т. І. Салашенко

к. е. н., старший науковий співробітник відділу промислової політики та енергетичної безпеки, Науково-дослідний центр індустріальних проблем розвитку НАН України

T. Salashenko

PhD in Economics, Senior Researcher of the Department of Industrial Policy and Energy Security, Research and Development Centre for Industrial Problems of Development of the NAS of Ukraine

ORCID:

0000-0002-1822-5836

Як цитувати статтю

Салашенко Т. І. Енергетика України та світу в умовах пандемії: наслідки та заходи боротьби. Економіка та держава. 2020. № 5. С. 137–142. DOI: 10.32702/2306-6806.2020.5.137

Salashenko, T. (2020), “Energy sector of Ukraine and world in a pandemic conditions: consequences and measures of fighting”, Ekonomika ta derzhava, vol. 5, pp. 137–142. DOI: 10.32702/2306-6806.2020.5.137

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